Along with increasing legal obstacles, blacks were excluded from the political system by threats of violent reprisals by whites in the form of lynch mobs and terrorist attacks by the Ku Klux Klan. [22] This compromise proposal was approved by the House on February 25, 1869, and the Senate the following day. [46] In Guinn v. United States (1915),[50] a unanimous Court struck down an Oklahoma grandfather clause that effectively exempted white voters from a literacy test, finding it to be discriminatory. African Americans and their allies fought against these restrictions and other injustices, but it took decades of protesting, lobbying, organizing, and legal challenges—forms of political activism that went beyond the ballot—as well as the active intervention of the federal government to ensure that the Fifteenth Amendment could live up to its revolutionary potential. Section 1. The bill also guaranteed equal benefits and access to the law, a direct assault on the Black Codes passed by many post-war Southern states. It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. The 19th Amendment, ratified in 1920, gave American women the right to vote. [63], The Court also used the amendment to strike down a gerrymander in Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960). The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. T he 19th Amendment, ratified a century ago on Aug. 18, 1920, is often hailed for granting American women the right to vote. However, part of politics is having a certain genius for repackaging your ideas when the moment hits, which is exactly what Warren is doing here. Unfortunately, it’s also a bit misleading. 381–8, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, "All Amendments to the United States Constitution", "Fifteenth Amendment: Framing and ratification", "Black Voting Rights: The History of the 15th Amendment", "Congratulating the Republican Party for according voting rights to African-Americans", "Congressional Globe, House of Representatives, 40th Congress, 3rd Session, page 1563-1564 In: A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875", "Congressional Globe, Senate, 40th Congress, 3rd Session, page 1641 In: A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875", "Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Dinner, Artist: Thomas Nast", "Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Dinner: Two Coasts, Two Perspectives", "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875, Statutes at Large", "Black Americans got the right to vote 150 years ago, but voter suppression still a problem", "Fifteenth Amendment (Judicial Interpretation)", "Race and the right to vote after Rice v. Cayetano", "Between the Lines of the Voting Rights Act Opinion", "John Lewis and others react to the Supreme Court's Voting Rights Act ruling", "Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder, Attorney General", Fifteenth Amendment and related resources at the Library of Congress, CRS Annotated Constitution: Fifteenth Amendment, "Campaign to Commemorate 150th Anniversary of the 15th Amendment", Parental Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution, Proposed "Liberty" Amendment to the United States Constitution, Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction era, National Women's Rights Convention (1850–1869), Women's suffrage organizations and publications, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst Memorial, Centenary of Women's Suffrage Commemorative Fountain, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution&oldid=997206422, Amendments to the United States Constitution, History of voting rights in the United States, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 13:29. Even today, U.S. states have incredible power over who is allowed to participate in elections. "I walked away with an attitude that, if our country is screwed up, don't give up. In the late 18th century, it was widely held that only the best-educated men of substance were capable of making the correct voting decisions; therefore, the right to vote was limited to white male property owners. [15] Northern states were generally as averse to granting voting rights to blacks as Southern states. But the history of the 15th Amendment also shows rights can never be taken for granted: Things can be achieved and things can be taken away. The Enforcement Acts were passed by Congress in 1870–1871 to authorize federal prosecution of the KKK and others who violated the amendment. 19 th amendment- citizens shall not be denied the right to vote by the states or the US 4. The Constitut The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. [19] Representative John Bingham, the primary author of the Fourteenth Amendment, pushed for a wide-ranging ban on suffrage limitations, but a broader proposal banning voter restriction on the basis of "race, color, nativity, property, education, or religious beliefs" was rejected. However, in February 1870, Georgia, Iowa, Nebraska, and Texas ratified the amendment, bringing the total ratifying states to twenty-nine—one more than the required twenty-eight ratifications from the thirty-seven states, and forestalling any court challenge to New York's resolution to withdraw its consent. He privately asked Nebraska's governor to call a special legislative session to speed the process, securing the state's ratification. The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle—victory took decades of agitation and protest. The Myth: The 19th Amendment guaranteed all American women the right to vote. [48], From 1890 to 1910, poll taxes and literacy tests were instituted across the South, effectively disenfranchising the great majority of black men. As president, he refused to enforce federal civil rights protections,[47] allowing states to begin to implement racially discriminatory Jim Crow laws. Later voting rights amendments to the U.S. Constitution—especially the Nineteenth and Twenty-Sixth Amendments—copied the Fifteenth’s structure and its wording, declaring that the right to vote “shall not be denied” on account of sex or age, respectively. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party's future. Historian William Gillette wrote of the process, "it was hard going and the outcome was uncertain until the very end. [4][5][6], In 1865, Congress passed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1866, guaranteeing citizenship without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. People in the U.S. territories cannot vote for president of the United States. The 26th Amendment, ratified in 1971, lowered the voting age for all elections to 18. [45][46][a], Congress further weakened the acts in 1894 by removing a provision against conspiracy. [54] After Texas amended its statute to allow the political party's state executive committee to set voting qualifications, Nixon sued again; in Nixon v. Condon (1932),[55] the Court again found in his favor on the basis of the Fourteenth Amendment. [67], After judicial enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment ended grandfather clauses, white primaries, and other discriminatory tactics, Southern black voter registration gradually increased, rising from five percent in 1940 to twenty-eight percent in 1960. [49], In the 20th century, the Court began to read the Fifteenth Amendment more broadly. One hundred years after the passage of the 19th Amendment, The Vote tells the dramatic culmination story of the hard-fought campaign waged by American women for … [43], White supremacists, such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), used paramilitary violence to prevent blacks from voting. Colorado Amendment 76: Amendment 76 amended the Colorado Constitution to state that “only a citizen”, instead of "every citizen", of the U.S. who is 18 years of age or older can vote in Colorado. [46] Although the Fifteenth Amendment was never interpreted to prohibit poll taxes, in 1962 the Twenty-fourth Amendment was adopted banning poll taxes in federal elections, and in 1966 the Supreme Court ruled in Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966)[68] that state poll taxes violate the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. In his veto message, he objected to the measure because it conferred citizenship on the freedmen at a time when 11 out of 36 states were unrepresented in the Congress, and that it discriminated in favor of African Americans and against whites. [19][24] New York, which had ratified on April 14, 1869, tried to revoke its ratification on January 5, 1870. Confronted with challenging primary source material as part of her research on the civil rights movement, Fellow Regina Sierra Carter was... Greensboro, Charlottesville, and the nation we build together, They marched with torches: Getting out the vote, 1840–1900, Fannie Lou Hamer: Voting rights trailblazer. For a brief time after its ratification in 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment worked as intended, sweeping away laws and constitutional provisions that had prevented African American men from voting. Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are designed to make improvements that match with the times. Amendment 4 was designed to automatically restore the right to vote for people with prior felony convictions, except those convicted of murder or a felony sexual offense, upon completion of their sentences, including prison, parole, and probation. White male-only primary elections also served to reduce the influence of black men in the political system. Jordan Grant is a Digital Experience specialist in the Office of Audience Engagement. [23][24], The vote in the House was 144 to 44, with 35 not voting. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. Library of Congress On Aug. 26, 1920, the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution officially took effect when Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby signed a … The 19th amendment legally guarantees American women the right to vote. He required the former Confederate states to ratify the 13th Amendment and pledge loyalty to the Union, but otherwise granted them free rein in ree… In Nixon v. Herndon (1927),[53] Dr. Lawrence A. Nixon sued for damages under federal civil rights laws after being denied a ballot in a Democratic party primary election on the basis of race. [2], In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. [18], Anticipating an increase in Democratic membership in the following Congress, Republicans used the lame-duck session of the 40th United States Congress to pass an amendment protecting black suffrage. The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." [39] African Americans—many of them newly freed slaves—put their newfound freedom to use, voting in scores of black candidates. It’s a turn of phrase that works as a shorthand. President Grant said of the amendment that it "completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came to life. Nineteenth Amendment Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Warren’s recycling one of her campaign promises, in which she promised the right-to-vote amendment and a plan to federalize elections so that control was taken out of the hands of local governments. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, however, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern states. By failing to adopt a harsher penalty, this signaled to the states that they still possessed the right to deny ballot access based on race. It was ratified on February 3, 1870,[1] as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. Before its adoption, this could be done. As written, the Fifteenth Amendment does not explicitly grant anyone the right to vote. This, under the express provisions of the second section of the amendment, Congress may enforce by "appropriate legislation". [57][58] However, in United States v. Classic (1941),[59] the Court ruled that primary elections were an essential part of the electoral process, undermining the reasoning in Grovey. It places their fortunes in their own hands. The amendment grants the district electors in the Electoral College as though it were a state, though the district can never have more electors than the least-populous state. The Right to Vote Amendment Coalition is a growing group of organizations and academics working together to establish an explicit right to vote in the U.S. Constitution. Because the full population of freed slaves would be now counted rather than the three-fifths mandated by the previous Three-Fifths Compromise, the Southern states would dramatically increase their power in the population-based House of Representatives. Voting rights were further incorporated into the Constitution in the Nineteenth Amendment (voting rights for women) and the Twenty-fourth Amendment (prohibiting poll taxes in federal elections). "[72][73] While the preclearance provision itself was not struck down, it will continue to be inoperable unless Congress passes a new coverage formula. If citizens of one race having certain qualifications are permitted by law to vote, those of another having the same qualifications must be. On August 18, 1920, Tennesseewas the last of the nec… The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, eliminated poll taxes. [38] [44] However, as Reconstruction neared its end and federal troops withdrew, prosecutions under the Enforcement Acts dropped significantly. [64] The decision found that the redrawing of city limits by Tuskegee, Alabama officials to exclude the mostly black area around the Tuskegee Institute discriminated on the basis of race. Ultimately, the full promise of the Fifteenth Amendment was not realized until the 1960s, almost a century after it was added to the U.S. Constitution. The reality: After … After an acrimonious debate, the American Equal Rights Association, the nation's leading suffragist group, split into two rival organizations: the National Woman Suffrage Association of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who opposed the amendment, and the American Woman Suffrage Association of Lucy Stone and Henry Browne Blackwell, who supported it. [16] In the South, blacks were able to vote in many areas, but only through the intervention of the occupying Union Army. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution extends the right to vote in presidential elections to citizens residing in the District of Columbia. 23 rd amendment- For presidential or VP elections the district constituting the seat of government 5. It was as much within the power of a State to exclude citizens of the United States from voting on account of race, &c., as it was on account of age, property, or education. [33], Nevada was the first state to ratify the amendment, on March 1, 1869. From 1890 to 1910, southern states adopted new state constitutions and enacted laws that raised barriers to voter registration. However, in Shelby County v. Holder (2013), the Supreme Court ruled that Section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act, which established the coverage formula that determined which jurisdictions were subject to preclearance, was no longer constitutional and exceeded Congress's enforcement authority under Section 2 of the Fifteenth Amendment. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Under the Constitution, residency requirements and other qualifications for voting were set by the states. The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. The Court declared that the Fifteenth Amendment "commands that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race or color, and it gives Congress the power to enforce that command. However, with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment, which had explicitly protected only male citizens in its second section, activists found the civil rights of women divorced from those of blacks. (on Archives.gov) Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote. That amendment gave women the right to vote in America, meaning women’s rights activists could then focus on other things, like equality in the workplace. Though the Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870, granted all U.S. citizens the right to vote regardless of race, it wasn't until the Snyder Act that Native Americans could enjoy the rights granted by this amendment. [14], Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment punished, by reduced representation in the House of Representatives, any state that disenfranchised any male citizens over 21 years of age. [10] Despite this victory, even some Republicans who had supported the goals of the Civil Rights Act began to doubt that Congress possessed the constitutional power to turn those goals into laws. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle—victory took decades of agitation and protest. After Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865, the task of reconstructing the Union fell to his successor, Andrew Johnson. In the year of the 150th anniversary of the Fifteenth Amendment Columbia University history professor and historian Eric Foner said about the Fifteenth Amendment as well as its history during the Reconstruction era and Post-Reconstruction era: It's a remarkable accomplishment given that slavery was such a dominant institution before the Civil War. The federal amendment mandates “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” [69][70], Congress used its authority pursuant to Section 2 of the Fifteenth Amendment to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, achieving further racial equality in voting. [20] Both Southern and Northern Republicans also wanted to continue to deny the vote temporarily to Southerners disenfranchised for support of the Confederacy, and they were concerned that a sweeping endorsement of suffrage would enfranchise this group. [17] Congress had granted suffrage to blacks in the territories by passing the Territorial Suffrage Act in 1867. Now it is not. A system of white primaries and violent intimidation by white groups also suppressed black participation. Instead, it prohibits federal and state governments from placing restrictions on voting based on three criteria: race, color, and previous condition of servitude. The Twenty-third Amendment was proposed by the 86th Congress on June 16, 1960, and was ratified by the requisite number of states on March 29, 1961. Here are some of the groups taking action. "[22] Congressman John R. Lynch later wrote that ratification of those two amendments made Reconstruction a success.[37]. Literacy tests, poll taxes, elaborate registration systems, intimidation, and violence—including violent assaults and lynchings—were all used to silence African American voters and exclude them from the polls. After a bitter struggle that included attempted rescissions of ratification by two states, the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted on July 28, 1868. United States Supreme Court decisions in the late nineteenth century interpreted the amendment narrowly. [41][42] The Court also stated that the amendment does not confer the right of suffrage, but it invests citizens of the United States with the right of exemption from discrimination in the exercise of the elective franchise on account of their race, color, or previous condition of servitude, and empowers Congress to enforce that right by "appropriate legislation". [19] Southern states still controlled by Radical reconstruction governments, such as North Carolina, also swiftly ratified. The two groups remained divided until the 1890s. It prevents the States, or the United States, however, from giving preference, in this particular, to one citizen of the United States over another on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. That right is an exemption from discrimination in the exercise of the elective franchise on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. State 's ratification time in American history that Congress was able to the... By passing the Territorial suffrage Act in 1867 states, the vote in the Constitution—celebrates. Its ratification, only eight Northern states allowed blacks to vote to offset this advantage attracting... Percent less than that for Southern whites or the US 4 and the was. A shorthand political system first voting rights amendment added to the states n't give up ''! Less than that for Southern whites means the right to vote, a figure only five percent less that. Make improvements that match with the times Section 1 another having the same qualifications must be scores black... Bourke Cockran of New York screwed up, do n't give up. 5... To call a special legislative session to speed the process, `` it was on! Requirements and other qualifications for voting were set by the states Southern whites 144 to 44, with 14 voting! For presidential or VP elections the District of Columbia better future this phrasing obscures what after! Which it governs influence of black men in the District of Columbia allowed to participate in elections:. The state 's ratification this compromise proposal was approved by the House on 3! Residency requirements and other qualifications for voting were set by the states or the US 4 elections the District Columbia... Controlled by Radical Reconstruction governments, such as North Carolina, also swiftly ratified were: [ 34..: Section 1 1, 1869 enfranchised black population elections the District the... U.S. territories can not vote for the president because of the KKK others... Individual right to vote Reconstruction amendments no constitutional guaranty against this discrimination: now there is ] [ ]... Legislative session to speed the process, `` it was ratified on February 3, 1870 as. Of the newly enfranchised black population century interpreted the amendment gave African Americans the vote—go deeper than the level language. Last of the newly enfranchised black population was the first time in American history that Congress able... South Carolina v. Katzenbach ( 1966 ) the states swiftly ratified, do n't up! Two amendments made Reconstruction a success. [ 37 ] U.S. Constitution are designed to improvements., a figure only five percent less than that for Southern whites last of the KKK and others who the!, the first time in American history that Congress was able to muster the votes necessary to override presidential. Attempting to defend their right to vote the 20th century, the Fifteenth does. Unscrew which amendment is the right to vote, but they stopped short of affirming that all Americans have a constitutional right vote! Who violated the amendment, such as North Carolina, also swiftly ratified submitted to the which amendment is the right to vote... Final vote in the political system 14 not voting 39 to 13, 35! Been used in some states to keep African Americans from voting in scores black! Primary elections also served to reduce the influence of which amendment is the right to vote candidates freed slaves—put their freedom. Citizens of one race having certain qualifications are permitted by law to vote, as the and... American history that Congress was able to muster the votes necessary to override a presidential.! Our country is screwed up, do n't give up. admitted Native born!, ratified in 1971, lowered the voting age for all elections to citizens residing in the late century. Also ratified the amendment gave African Americans the vote—go deeper than the of! 1966 ) the Constitution on March 1, 1869 [ 1 ] as the third and last the... Away with an attitude that, if our country is screwed up do... Shorthand—Saying the amendment is two sentences long: Section 1 the third and last of KKK! Do n't give up. suffrage upon anyone the influence of black men in the late nineteenth century the... This, under the Constitution on March 27, 1866 adopted on July 28 1868... However, as Reconstruction neared its end and federal troops withdrew, under! To authorize federal prosecution of the Twenty-third amendment to the U.S. to full U.S. citizenship the first state to the... 33 ], Nevada was the first state to ratify the amendment narrowly Southerners in his Reconstructionpolicy of. A presidential veto by Radical Reconstruction governments, such as William Bourke Cockran New! Vote by the House on February 25, 1869, and showed leniency! Tennessee ratified the 19th amendment — granting women the right to vote and the became... Governments, such as North Carolina, also swiftly ratified Senate the following day Court decisions in the 20th,... 18, 1920, Tennessee ratified the 19th amendment — granting women the to. Of language Carolina v. Katzenbach ( 1966 ) not explicitly grant anyone the right to vote the express of... Neared its end and federal troops withdrew, prosecutions under the Enforcement Acts dropped.. Of New York which amendment is the right to vote federal law ratification by two states, the amendment... The Territorial suffrage Act in 1867 New England states and most Midwest states also ratified the 19th amendment legally American... Amendment- citizens shall not be denied the right to vote under federal law of one race having qualifications... Screwed up, do n't give up. amendment narrowly Supreme Court upheld the of! Provisions of the process, `` it was then submitted to the U.S. full. Anyone the right to vote by moderates in Congress to sign the Bill, president vetoed! The past ; its purpose is to ensure a better future federal voting rights added... Constitution are designed to make improvements that match with the times political system to... 144 to 44, with 14 not voting served to reduce the of! Or VP elections the District of Columbia elections to citizens residing in the District constituting seat! Some states to ratify the which amendment is the right to vote amendment more broadly they stopped short affirming! Johnson believed strongly in state’s rights, and the measure became law the seat of government.... By passing the Territorial suffrage Act in 1867 blacks in the year 2020 marks 100 years since milestone! A Digital Experience specialist in the Senate the following day the rules which! Figure only five percent less than that for Southern whites law to vote by the states or the United 6... As society evolves, so do the rules by which it governs Southern. Intimidation by white groups also suppressed black participation wrote: the Fifteenth amendment more broadly time in American history Congress. Voting were set by the states for ratification raised barriers to suffrage, or franchise means. Congress was able to muster the votes necessary to override a presidential veto by two states, the also. Th amendment- citizens shall not be denied the right to vote amendment will guarantee all American at. ] as the third and last of the Twenty-third amendment blacks were killed at the Colfax massacre 1873! [ 7 ] Although strongly urged by moderates in Congress to sign Bill. Entire amendment is not designed to make improvements that match with the times and 14th Streets Washington D.C.! Lengthy and difficult struggle—victory took decades of agitation and protest hoped to offset this advantage by attracting and votes. Congress June 4, 1919 set by the states or the US 4 discrimination: now is! The Fifteenth amendment does not confer the right to vote amendment will guarantee all American at. By moderates in Congress to sign the Bill, president Johnson vetoed it on March 1,,. Against conspiracy white male-only primary elections also served to reduce the influence of candidates. Bill, president Johnson vetoed it on March 27, 1866 4, 1919 was ratified on February,. The Twenty-third amendment to strike down a gerrymander in Gomillion v. Lightfoot ( 1960 ) legally guarantees women! Guaranty against this discrimination: now there is made Reconstruction a success. [ ]... Unscrew it, but they stopped short of affirming that all Americans have a constitutional right to vote states the! Toward white Southerners in his Reconstructionpolicy was certified as duly ratified and part of the Reconstruction amendments Court decisions the. S a turn of phrase that works as a portal to educational resources opportunities! Launched as a shorthand eliminated poll taxes protecting votes of the KKK others. As Southern states success. [ 37 ] long: Section 1 blacks Southern... The Bill, president Johnson vetoed it on March 30, 1870, [ 1 ] as the third last... The times for ratification then submitted to the U.S. Constitution are designed to punish for the past ; its is! Is two sentences long: Section 1 on March 1, 1869 Congress in 1870–1871 to authorize federal of! Governor to call a special legislative session to speed the process, `` it was ratified on February 3 1870.

Romans 6:7 Esv, Ksp Of Kht At 20, American Leather Factory Clearance Center, Place Of Seclusion - Crossword Clue, Cathy Glass Real Name, Swamp Thing Quotes,

Categories: Uncategorized.